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Food poisoning and food disease

Food poisoning and food disease

Food poisoning 

It is one of the cases of food spoilage and the most dangerous to public health. Food poisoning is due to the consumption of some chemicals, plants or poisonous animals or toxins resulting from some types of microorganisms or contamination with the bacteria themselves.
Food poisoning is divided into:

1- Chemical poisoning

 It is the result of consuming toxic chemicals with food, such as antimony, cadmium, arsenic, lead, copper, zinc and barium. Antimoine and cadmium poisoning occurs as a result of preparing food in containers of cheap aluminum. As for arsenic and its salts, it reaches the food through the raw material, where its compounds are used to resist pests. Therefore, care must be taken to wash foodstuffs before eating them, as for copper poisoning, it results from using copper vessels without tin coating.

2- Phytotoxicity

 This is due to the toxic effect of some plants or their parts, such as ergot poisoning.
Or it results from eating wheat grains infected with the fungus Claviceps perpurea, which secretes ergot material.  It is an allergic condition more than a case of poisoning,
and it occurs as a result of eating parts of the bean plant or its flowers, or touching plant parts and even smell it so it causes a rapid dissolution of hemoglobin in the blood .

3- Animal poisoning

 the result of eating some toxic animal species, such as some types of fish

4- Poisoning by microorganisms

 It is divided into:
Food poisoning: It includes diseases caused by eating food that has a poison in it .
Food infection: which includes diseases transmitted through food contaminated with pathogenic microbes

First- Food poisoning

It is divided into Botulism toxin and  Staphylococcal Poisoning.
Botulinum poisoning : It is the result of the presence of toxins excreted in food by the bacteria of Clostridium botulinum, which is an anaerobic, gram-positive bacillary bacterium whose main source is the soil and there are five strains of which are A, B, C, D, E, where it infects humans and leads to poisoning. but the C and D poison infect birds and animals
These bacteria produce gas and cause unpleasant odors in meat and fish products. The secreted toxin disintegrates at a temperature of 80 ° C for a period ranging from minutes to half an hour, and for this reason the food must be subjected to a boiling process in order to disintegrate the toxins , symptoms of the disease appear after about 12-36 hours of eating contaminated food, the symptoms are in the form of fatigue and headache, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, double vision, difficulty swallowing and stopping breathing, and death occurs in 60% of cases after 3 to 6 days
Staphylococcal poisoning: It results from contamination of food with Stapylococcus aureus, a spherical bacterium that exists in nature that causes ulceration of wounds and udder inflammation of cattle. It is a bacteria that is resistant to high temperature and tolerates high concentrations of salinity and grows on a large number of foods such as meat, fish, sausage, baking products, sweets and eggs, these toxins are heat resistant, so it is not damaged by boiling and the symptoms of poisoning appear in 4 to 6 hours after consuming the poisoned food

Second- Food disease

it is similar to food poisoning in terms of symptoms, the harmful effect does not appear immediately after eating the food, but after a period during which the microorganism is able to reproduce and cause damage within the gastrointestinal tract, and the most important of these organisms is Salmonella, which is a non-sporogenic bacilli bacteria , Heat resistance and the toxins are not excreted outside its cells but the bacteria itself  is the cause of the disease, the most important symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea and a rise in temperature within 12 to 24 hours of eating food, then the symptoms disappear slowly and the disease continues for up to three days and the mortality rate is very few, not exceeding 2%

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