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  Javel Water | Sodium hypochlorite - Ways Manufactured

Javel Water | Sodium hypochlorite - Ways Manufactured


Javel Water  or sodium hypochlorite or what is popularly known as chlorine is a yellowish-green liquid with a scent and a shame , has sterile properties against many types of bacteria and some viruses , and is introduced in many industries (e.g. food, pharmaceutical, cleaning, sterilization and waste treatment and wastewater to get rid of its smell).


History of sodium hypochlorite

In 1785, the French chemist Claude-Louis Bertoli developed liquid bleaching agents based on sodium hypochlorite, and the French company Javel began to put this product on the market. And i named him "Javelin Fluid", and he still bears that name.

It was used for cotton bleaching and then became a popular compound because of its quality properties in removing stains from clothing at normal temperature.


The sterilization mechanism of sodium hypochlorite solution

Sodium hypochlorite is laced to give the hypochlorite , part of which is converted into sodium hydroxide and sub-chlorinated acid, where it gives the oxidative force of sub-chlorinated acid and hypochlorite ferociouss the bleaching act of this solution.

The negative charge of hypochlorite is prevented from spreading through the walls of the bacteria cell, which weakens its sterilization action, but sub-chlorinated acid molecules, which are in balance with hypochlorite swarms, are easily spread through the walls of the bacteria cell because of their moderate charge and small size.

These actions change the amount of oxidative/return of the cell and inhibit the action of the enzyme "Triosephosphate dehydrogenase" which is mainly responsible for the digestion of glucose, which stops the ability of microorganisms to function


Javel Water in the detergent industry

  • Commercial Javel Water is an extended solution for Sodium hypochlorite NaOCl with a concentration of 3-5% and is a clear yellow liquid that tends to green and is used as a cleaner for white cotton fabrics and sold in opaque cans because it disintegrates with light
  • It is used as a sterilizer for water and swimming pools and has oxidizing properties.
  • - An important warning when using it is not to mix it with Bathroom Cleaner  (water chlorinated acid) in order not to react and produce the toxic chlorine gas Cl2.
  • - Javel Water is not allowed to be mixed with ammonia solutions, where toxic amine chlorine is produced


The effect of PH solution on the bleaching action of sodium hypochlorite

PH affects the effective form responsible for bleaching of hypochlorite significantly

NaOCl + H2O NaOH + HOCl

- In the alkaline medium , it is in the form of NaOCl due to the shift of the reaction largely to the left.

- In the moderate medium , it is in the form of HOCl to shift the reaction to the right.


- Free chlorine is released in strong acidic medium because of the following reaction:

HOCl + HCl   H2O +Cl2

Therefore, it warns against using Javel Water mixture with Hydrochloric Acid solutions during cleaning.


Ways to make Javel Water

There are several ways . For the production of Javel Water , the choice of the appropriate method depends on the economic cost of production and the tools available for production.


Industrial methods:

Method 1:

Industrially produced by passing chlorine gas Cl2 into the NaOH solution called the Hooker method

Cl2 + 2NaOH   NaCl +NaClO + H2O

It's an economic way of producing.


Method 2:

From electrolysis to a concentrated solution of sodium chlorinated salt


Popular methods:

If you want to make Javel Water on a small (local) level and fill it and sell it there are two ways:


Method 1:

From Javel Concentrated Water Diluting:

- The concentrated concentration of sodium hypochlorite is 10 to 12% and is Diluting with distilled water, filtered or even normal water after treatment by adding 3 kg of EDTA to every 1 ton of water to deposit electrolytes causing the harshness of water so that white deposits do not appear during canning.

The Diluting is up to a concentration of 3-5%

The amount of water needed for the Diluting is calculated from the following law:

(N1 х V1 (pre-Diluting) = N2 х V2 (after Diluting


Where N1 is the concentration of concentrated Javel water

N2 required Javel water concentration after dilution

V1 volume before dilution

(V2 Final Volume (after dilution


Example: We want to Diluting 10 liters of javel water concentration of 12% to 5%


from the law :

N1х V1 = N2 х V2

10x12 =5xV2

V2 =24


That is, dilute to 24 liters, i.e. we add 14 liters of water to the 10 liters of concentrated dry water.


Method 2:

From Ca (OCl)2:

This method is called the old-fashioned method and is a fairly good economic method and the product is affordable.

This method is based on the interaction of calcium hypochlorite with sodium carbonate (Soda Ash) Na2CO3 and NaOCl production

According to the interaction:

Ca(ClO)2 + Na2CO3  CaCO3 + 2NaClO


Materials required to manufacture 100kg javel water:

  1. Calcium hypochlorite 8 kg
  2. (Sodium carbonate 5 kg (Soda Ash
  3. Sodium hydroxide 300 g NaOH


How to work:

  • We heat 60 liters of water to 40 -50 degrees because calcium hypochlorite is poorly dissolved in water and its solubility increases by heating.
  • Add the amount of hypochlorite to the water and stir well.
  • Dissolve soda ash in a quantity of water and it is fast soluble.
  • During stirring, add the soda solution gradually.
  • After the addition of soda, add 300g of caustic soda.
  • We complete the volume by adding 60 liters of water. (We added an extra amount of water because the resulting sediment will not be able to completely separate it)
  • We keep stirring from 1 to 1.5 hours to ensure good interaction.
  • Leave the mixture until the next day, in case there is a white layer on the surface remove it quietly, and leave it for several hours, so the solution formed is Javel Water , we separate it according to the available tools .


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