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An overview of jams and apple jam manufacturing

 

An overview of jams and apple jam manufacturing

Manufacture of jams

The jams industry is one of the well-known domestic industries in all countries ... especially after the development of agriculture and the resulting increase in agricultural production in general.

Whereas The presence of large quantities in the production of fruits necessitated the search for ways to preserve these products in many ways ....

Where the jam industry is linked to the free water present in the processed food by increasing the concentration of solids and raising the osmotic pressure, using high sugar concentrations

The high concentration of solids prevents the growth of microorganisms from fungi, yeasts and germs.

Also, the increase in sugar concentration helps in depleting oxygen, which leads to preventing oxidation, as the color and taste of the processed fruit does not change.

Jam definition:

It is boiled fruits, whether whole or cut with sugar, so that the ratio of fruit to sugar does not decrease (45 parts by weight fruit ,.55 parts by weight sugar) and it is possible to add some substances to improve the flavor and texture, such as organic acids and pectin or spices and nuts, and the percentage of soluble solids in the product must be up Final to 68_70%

factors of preserving jams:

  • The use of sugar should be at a high concentration of 65-70%, and this factor is one of the most important factors for preserving jam
  • Filling the jam at a temperature of 90 ° C so that we can dispense with pasteurization, and if the filling process when the product is cold, it must be pasteurized at a temperature of 85 ° to 90 ° C for a few minutes
  • when using plastic or glass containers that cannot be pasteurized, preservatives such as benzoic acid or 0.1% sodium benzoate are added. Sorbic acid or potassium sorbate at 250ppm , some sulfuric acid at 100-150 ppm has the benefit of preserving and preventing oxidation.
  • The product should not be exposed to any contamination or water during storage or packing. Clean and dry tools should be used and not to return the surplus to the package

We will now review how to make apple jam in an easy and simple way ...

1. We bring healthy fruits and exclude the spoiled ones (infected with fungi and insects)

2. wash the fruits, peel , cut them and work to remove the seeds and seed pockets. Divide them into slices or cubes as desired and immediately submerge them with water with the addition of a small amount of acid to prevent enzymatic browning

    3. boil the pieces with water in cooking utensils, and the lid must be closed ** the moment the water boils, we turn the pieces over from time to time and the boiling process continues from 20-30 minutes depending on the degree of ripeness of the fruits

4.the boiled pieces and leave them until they cool down and then weigh in order to calculate the amount of sugar needed, which is (1 kg of boiled and cold apple slices to 1.1 kg added sugar)

5. After preparing the necessary sugar amount , put the apple pieces in cooking utensils on the fire and add the sugar to them in batches gradually with Continuous stirring until the sugar is completely dissolved.

When boiling begins, dissolve an amount of citric acid and estimate it based on the amount of added sugar (which is estimated at 3 g per 1 kg of sugar)

The amount of acid is dissolved with a little water and added to the previous mixture and the cooking process continues to reach the required concentration,

 

and we know this by measuring:

  1. .The temperature should be 104.5 - 105 ° C at the end of the cooking time
  2. .The degree of concentration of the final mixture ranges between 68 - 70% (and this process is done by measuring the concentration of dissolved solids using the refractometer by taking a sample of the jam and leaving it until it cools to 20 ° C, then the measurement is done using one of the measuring devices for total solids or the refractive factor.

.The spoon test: It is applied as follows:

A-We take a little of the jam solution and leave it until it cools, then pour it if the descent is intermittent

It means the end of the cooking process

 

B - Take a little syrup and put it on a small plate and leave it until it cools, then push the jam with the finger

If the solution shrinks, the density and concentration will be good


C- We take an amount of the solution with a wooden spoon if the spoon is completely covered with the thick liquid, this means the cooking time is sufficient.


D- The absence of foam on the surface of the jam is evidence of reaching the final concentration


 Important notes on the industry of jams

Note 1: If the cooking process in open vessels under normal atmospheric pressure leads to changes in taste and color due to the occurrence of oxidation and caramelization of sugar, so we prefer that the cooking process be done in closed vessels

And under vacuum, to redunce the boiling point and reduce the occurrence of oxidation due to the lack of appropriate conditions for that, thus obtaining an ideal product in terms of taste, color and smell


Note 2: Pay attention to getting rid of the foam layer formed on the surface of the jam during the cooking process

      

6 . after we finish the cooking process, fill the  in dry and sterilized containers when it is hot at a temperature of 90 ° C, close the previous vessels and turn them upside down to sterilize the lids, then leave them to cool.

One of the benefits of this method is that it preserves the color and flavor of the fruit, in addition to avoiding burning and caramelizing the sugar, giving the burnt flavor, and reducing the oxidation process on the product.

 

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